Suggestion 1

Suggestion 2

Suggestion 3

Suggestion 1: General obligation on technology transfer



Provide obligation to enhance implementation of UNCLOS requirements for technology transfer, with reference to IOC Criteria and Guidelines for the Transfer of Marine Technology.


This should include an obligation to cooperate directly and through competent regional and international organizations to support, facilitate and promote technology transfer as well as to cooperate in such transfer activities.





UNCLOS Art 144 (needs of developing states)

IOC Criteria and Guidelines for the Transfer of Marine Technology

Montreal Protocol Art 10A (technology transfer)

Minamata Convention Art 14 (technology transfer)


Suggestion 2: Detailed provisions to implement UNCLOS requirements on technology transfer



Based on UNCLOS requirements, include specific provisions on technology transfer, such as:


  • Clarification of the material scope of technology transfer (e.g. actual transfer of hardware)
  • Clarification of the nature of transfer (voluntary or mandatory)
  • Institutional structure for facilitating technology transfer, such as Clearing House mechanism (see Clearing House Mechanism)
  • Mechanisms for involving the private sector
  • Intellectual property rights protections




UNCLOS Arts 242, 244.2

CBD Art 16 (IP)

CBD Art 18 (technical and scientific cooperation)

1994 Implementing Agreement on Part XI Section 5 (private sector)

Minamata Convention Art 13 (private sector)

TRIPS Agreement Art 7, Art 40 (IP)


Suggestion 3: Reporting on tech transfer



Information on tech transfer activities should be provided to the relevant bodies established under this agreement.


See: Reporting Requirements.