Objectives of ABMTs, including MPAs
List obligations for area-based conservation based on CBD Art 8. These could include obligations to:
- Establish a system of ecologically representative and well-connected marine protected areas and adopt other area-based management measures where special measures need to be taken to conserve marine biological diversity in ABNJ;
- Apply internationally agreed scientific criteria and guidelines for the selection of marine protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity;
- Regulate or manage marine activities or resources important for the conservation of marine biological diversity in ABNJ whether within or outside MPAs with a view to ensuring conservation and sustainable use;
- Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings.
- Specifically protect endangered or declining species and take into consideration their different life stages in cooperation with relevant existing Conventions
- Identify additional Species needing specific conservation measures under UNCLOS BBNJ
- Specifically protect endangered or declining habitats in cooperation with existing relevant Conventions
- Promote adaptive governance and management through piloting and testing well designed policy innovations
- Integrate Dynamic Ocean Management (DOM) for Marine Migratory Species management and identify the Species appropriate for this technique
- Integrate conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity into decision-making
- Adopt measures to avoid or minimize adverse impacts on marine biological diversity in ABNJ
References: CBD Art 8 (In-situ conservation), CBD Art 10 (sustainable use of components of marine biodiversity), Aichi Target 11, UNFSA, Art 10 (c) (in fulfilling obligation to cooperate, States shall adopt and apply any generally recommended international minimum standards), UN Doc A/Conf.232/2018/3 BBNJ IGC1 President Aid to Negotiations,IPBES 7 Summary report for policy makers, UN Sustainable Development Goals
Suggestion 2: Specify set of objectives for MPA systemsEdit
Provide for a system of MPAs to be established to achieve specified objectives. Objectives could be based on a combination of existing and new objectives, with reference to objectives listed in regional seas conventions.
CCAMLR Marine Protected Area objectives include:
- the protection of representative examples of marine ecosystems, biodiversity and habitats [at an appropriate scale to maintain their viability and integrity in the long term;]
- the protection of key ecosystem processes, habitats and species, including populations and lifehistory stages;
- the establishment of scientific reference areas for monitoring natural variability and long-term change or for monitoring the effects of harvesting and other human activities on Antarctic marine living resources and on the ecosystems of which they form part;
- the protection of areas vulnerable to impact by human activities, including unique, rare or highly biodiverse habitats and features;
- the protection of features critical to the function of local ecosystems;
- the protection of areas to maintain resilience or the ability to adapt to the effects of climate change.
- promote transformative change by innovative governance approaches such as integrative, inclusive, informed and adaptive MPAs governance
- enhancing stakeholder collaboration, involving non-profit groups as well as indigenous peoples and local communities to establish and manage Marine Protected Area’s and Marine Protected Area networks, and proactively using instruments such as seascape-scale participatory scenarios and spatial planning, including transboundary conservation planning
- the definition of traditional knowledge, traditional use, relevant traditional knowledge
References: CCAMLR Conservation Measure 91-04, OSPAR Guidelines for the Identification and Selection of MPAs, OSPAR Guidance on Developing an Ecologically Coherent Network Of OSPAR MPAs, SPA/BD Protocol to the Barcelona Convention Art 4 (objectives), IPBES 7 Summary Report for Policy Makers, UN Sustainable Development Goals, UN Doc A/Conf.232/2018/3 BBNJ IGC1 President Aid to Negotiations,UN Doc A/Conf.232/2019/5 BBNJ IGC2 President closing statement, Lascelles et al. 2014 : Marine Migratory Species : their status threats and conservation management needs
Suggestion 3: Recognize role for both ABMTs and MPAsEdit
Recognize a role for both ABMTs and more comprehensively managed MPAs, as well as a suite of other conservation tools, recognizing that MPAs should be long term conservation of nature. This includes protecting all the features of conservation importance within their boundaries, including the overall health, diversity, productivity and resilience of the ecosystem.
Notes: There is a role for both sectorally focused Area Based Management Tools and more comprehensively managed MPAs, as well as a suite of other conservation tools in conserving marine biodiversity resources in ABNJ. Sectoral Area Based Management Tools -- such as IMO Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas, traffic routing systems; MARPOL Special Areas; RFMO temporal or spatial closed areas such as “Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems” (VMEs), ISA’s Areas of Particular Environmental Interest and Preservation Reference Zones -- provide important complementary protection.Sectorial ABMTs complement but do not negate the need for MPAs. Establishing a strong MPAs system is important as it offers advantages over sectorial tools, which are often targeted at one use, may be short term, and do not necessarily provide comprehensive protection for the full range of features in an area.
Suggestion 4: Climate change objectivesEdit
Climate related objectives relating to:
- enhancing carbon storage and buffer acidification,
- promoting genetic diversity that supports adaptation,
- preventing release of carbon stored in seafloor sediments,
- protecting apex predators that confer system stability, and
- increasing population size and consequently resiliency and provide stepping stones for climate migration.
- protecting coral reefs
- performing EIAs
- increasing ocean conservation funding
- increasing protection and connectivity of MPAs
- promoting innovations and technologies tackling climate change
- assuring transparency concerning activities conducted in ABNJs and civil society participation
References: IPBES Plenary 7 Summary report for Policy Makers